Hypothermia – a common human condition, when the entire surface of the body by exposure to cold, and thus the body temperature falls below 35 ° C.Long-term impact of low temperatures leads to freezing, the body’s functions are inhibited, and prolonged exposure to cold and does fade. Hypothermia and frostbite – like the concept, but with some differences.
Frostbite (frostbite) – damage to the tissues of the body exposed to the cold.Often accompanied by a general hypothermia and most often affects the parts of the body such as the ears, nose and limbs insufficiently protected, especially fingers and toes. It differs from the “cold burn” occurring as a result of direct contact with the extremely cold substances such as dry ice or liquid nitrogen. In most cases, frostbite occur in cold winter time at ambient temperatures below -10 ° C – -20 ° C. At long stay outdoors, especially at high humidity and high winds, frostbite can be obtained in the fall and spring, when the air temperature above zero.
Often there and cold injury arising from contact with warm skin with a cold metal object. Very often these types of frostbite occur in children. It happens that the “stuck” the child does not risk himself off the insidious glands and calls for help. To avoid injury, should be watered “adhered” a place with warm water if the water is not at hand, you can use warm breath (it may take some time). Warmed, metal certainly let his hapless prisoner.
To avoid such situations, the winter should not be given to children of the blade with metal handles. A metal parts sledge desirable to wrap cloth, adhesive tape – tape or close the covers. Be sure to protect their hands mittens.
There are some simple rules that will allow you to avoid hypothermia and frostbite in the frost:
– Do not drink alcohol – alcohol intoxication (like any other) actually causes a great loss of heat (in connection with the expansion of peripheral vascular disease), at the same time causing the illusion of warming. An additional factor is the inability to focus on the signs of frostbite;
– Do not smoke in the cold – smoking reduces peripheral blood circulation, and thus makes sure the more vulnerable;
– Wear loose clothing – it promotes normal blood circulation;
– Dress up like a “cabbage” – in this case between the layers of clothes is always a layer of air, well retain heat;
– Outerwear have to be waterproof;
– Tight shoes, no insoles, socks often serve as the raw basic prerequisite for the appearance of scuffs and frostbite.Particular attention must be paid to the shoe for those who often perspire feet. The need to put boots warm insoles and socks instead of cotton wool to wear – they absorb moisture, leaving your feet dry;
– Do not go out into the cold without mittens, hats and scarves. The best option – mittens from vlagoottalkivayuschey not blown fabric with fur inside. Gloves is made of natural materials, though convenient, but the wind is not saved. Cheeks and chin can be protected by a scarf;
– In the windy cold weather before going out of the body exposed grease special cream;
– Do not use a moisturizer for the face and hands;
– Do not wear the cold metal (including gold, silver) jewelry – rings, earrings and so on. D.tak as the metal cools the body much faster, resulting in possible “sticking” to the skin to pain and cold injury, as well as rings on the fingers prevents the normal circulation of blood. In general, try to avoid the cold bare skin contact with the metal;
– Use the help of a friend – watch for another person, especially behind the ears, nose and cheeks, for any noticeable change in color;
– Do not remove the cold shoes with frostbitten limbs – they swell, and you can not wear shoes again. As soon as possible to get to a warm place. If cold hands – try to warm their armpits;
– Returning home after a long walk in the cold, be sure to check for frostbite of extremities, back, ears, nose and so on. D. Launched its course frostbite can lead to gangrene and subsequent loss of the limb;
– As soon as you feel a walk hypothermia or freezing limbs as soon as possible go to any warm room – shop, cafe, entrance – to warm and inspection of potentially vulnerable to frostbite;
– If you have a stalled vehicle away from the village, or in an unfamiliar terrain for you, it is better to stay in the car, call for help over the phone or wait until the road will pass another vehicle;
– In the winter on the road we must remember that the snow is a very poor conductor of heat, so during a blizzard is better to dig in the snow, waiting for her to die down than to wander with the danger of getting lost and freeze;
– Hide from the wind – the wind frostbite probability is much higher;
– Do not wet the skin – water conducts heat much better than air.
Do not go out into the cold with wet hair after a shower. Wet clothes and shoes (for example, a man fell into the water) must be removed, if possible, put on a dry and as quickly as possible to bring human warmth. In the forest you need to light a fire, to undress and dry clothing during this time doing vigorous exercise, and soaking up the fire;
– It is useful for a long walk in the cold to bring a pair of removable socks, mittens, and a thermos of hot tea.
Keep in mind that children thermotaxis the body has not fully tuned, and the elderly, and in some diseases, this function can be impaired. These categories are more prone to hypothermia and frostbite, and this should be considered when planning trips. Letting the child for a walk in the frost on the street, remember that it is desirable to every 15-20 minutes to return to the heat and keep warm.